Illustration © 1998 by A. J. Garces
‘Inside the Black Box’ : Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment
Black and Wiliam (1998) make a case for focusing on what happens inside classrooms to raise standards, rather than treating classrooms like black boxes where an input of some external innovation leads to an output of raised achievement.
They present an analysis of hundreds of studies, which shows that formative assessment raises standards, especially for low-achieving students.
Formative assessment or Assessment for Learning (AfL) is therefore an essential component of classroom work and can raise student achievement.