The Wheel of Competency Assessment

A competence is an integrated unity of knowledge, skills and attitudes. It is therefore complex.

As a result of this,  the modules for Competency Based Assessment are a pluriform methodemix of choices.  They are organized in the so called Competency Assessment Plan or Program. (CAP)

Each CAP is a collection of Assessment for Learning instruments that are criterium referenced.

In order to use these Assessment for Learning modules as reliable instruments, 12 quality criteria have to be taken into consideration when creating these AfL modules.

We then speak of assessing the assessment.

The Wheel of Competency Assessment shows the 12  quality criteria :

The 12 quality criteria explained :


Fitness for purpose

Alignment between curriculum goals and what and how is assessed .Criteria and standard should address all competences and the mix of method should be fit to assess competence;

(Brown, 2004;Miller&Linn,2000).



Assessment tasks, criteria, working conditions and procedures should be consistent with respect to key features of interest.

(Baartman, Bastiaens,etal.,2007)

Reproducibility of decisions

Decisions  about students should be based on multiple assessors, multiple tasks and multiple situations;

(Moss, 1994;vanderVleuten&Schuwirth,2005)


CAP should be clear and understandable for all stakeholders.

(Frederiksen &Collins,1989;Linnetal.,1991)


All stakeholders should approve of the assessment criteria and methods.

(Stokking, VanderSchaaf,Jaspers,&Erkens,2004)



CAPs should stimulate self-regulated learning, for example using self-assessments and letting students formulate their own learning goals.

(Tillema, Kessels,&Meijers,2000)


Students should get a fair chance to demonstrate their competences, for example by letting them express themselves in different ways and making sure the assessors do not show biases;

(Dierick &Dochy,2001;Hambleton,1996;Linnetal.,1991)


CAPs should be learning opportunities in themselves and generate useful feedback for all stakeholders;

(Linn etal.,1991)


The degree of resemblance of a CAP to the future workplace;

(Gulikers, Bastiaens,&Kirschner,2004)

Cognitive complexity

CAPs should enable the judgment of thinking process, besides assessing the product or outcome.

(Maclellan, 2004)


Educational consequences

The degree to which the CAP yields positive effects on learning and teaching.

(Messick, 1994;Schuwirth&vanderVleuten, 2004)

Costs and efficiency

The feasibility of carrying out the CAP for assessors and students.

(Hambleton, 1996;Linnetal.,1991)


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