Assessment in the classroom should not be limited to one kind of assessment.
M. Birenbaum (2003) talks of an Integrated Assessment Systems (IAS) where the different modules of assessment have to take place :
- Assessment of Learning (AoL)
Assessment of Learning is a summative assessment used primarily to compare students and report progress .Unit tests are a commonly used form of Assessment of Learning.
AoL is norm-referenced
- Assessment for Learning (AfL)
Assessment for Learning , a type of formative assessment, is utilized by teachers in order to gain an understanding of their students’ knowledge and skills in order to guide instruction.
AfL is criterium – referenced
- Assessment as Learning (AaL)
Assessment as learning is also a formative assessment which focuses on teaching students’ the metacognitive processes to evaluate their own learning and make adjustments.
AaL is self – referenced